The USS Fitzgerald Is At Fault. This Is Why.

Navy Captain on Bridge

By Captain John Konrad (gCaptain) Every ship, regardless of nationality or purpose, is required to carry one terse book . This book is titled the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions but is better know by its acronym “COLREGs”. The chapters are short and to the point and ship officers are required to make marks of 90% on COLREGs tests taken to keep up their licenses. In order to pass this stringent requirement sailors have developed mnemonic aids to help them remember the contents. When the crew loses control of steering, the COLREGs demands that the ship display two red lights in a vertical line. The mnemonic for this rule is “Red over Red, the Captain’s dead”. Sailboats are required to display a red and green light and its said “Red over Green, sailing machine”. There are many more like this but one important rule for avoiding collisions with Navy warships is missing: “If it’s grey stay away.”

While the media, with a very little hard data, attempts to understand the erratic maneuvers of the containership ACX Crystal on the night of her collision with the Destroyer USS Fitzgerald… professional mariners are certain that a long investigation will find the US Navy ship at fault.

Is this conclusion the result of professional arrogance? Or maybe because of resentment and jealousy over the fact that Navy captains are praised and decorated by the public and media while merchant ship captains live mostly unnoticed. Or is it because they are correct?

As a ship captain along with years working with the U.S. Navy both aboard ships and ashore – here are the reasons why I believe they are correct. The USS Fitzerald was at fault.

Communication Failure

Despite recent advancements in electronic collision avoidance tools like automatic identification systems (AIS), the three most important tools for avoiding a collision are a Captain’s eyes, tongue and ears.

Deepwater Horizon Book: The Untold Story of the Gulf Oil Disaster
Related Book: Deepwater Horizon Book: The Untold Story of the Gulf Oil Disaster by John Konrad
Eyes, looking out the windows of his ship, are important because they can process information – like erratic course changes – faster and more accurately than electronic RADAR and charting systems.

A tongue because the quickest and most effective way to predict how a ship is going to maneuver in the minutes before a collision is to call the Captain of the other ship on the VHF radio and ask.

Ears are important because language barriers and cultural differences are prominent at sea and you must listen intently to the other ship’s reply if you want any chance of understanding her intentions.

The USS Fitzgerald’s Captain used only one, or possibly none, of these tools when communicating with the ACX Crystal.

In the moments leading up to a collision a merchant ship captain has to do everything but steer the ship himself. With the help of one officer he has to watch the RADAR and AIS, plot the relative courses of nearby vessels, communicate with the Engine Room, talk with other ships on the VHF radio and issue orders. But on a navy ship each of these jobs is performed by a small team of sailors who report changes to, and obey orders from, the officer of the deck (OOD). The OOD relays the important information to the Captain.

This system of many team members – each working on equipment they have been very well-trained to operate and reporting through a command structure that filters all but the most important information to the captain – is highly effective in war when a warship is exchanging salvos of high speed torpedoes and missiles with numerous hostile targets (anyone doubting this should read Jeff Edward’s excellent book “Torpedo”). But this structure is ineffective when dealing with a single slow moving merchant ship.

An eye on the target and direct communication – Captain to Captain – is the most effective means of avoiding collision but this never happens on Navy ships. When a merchant ship attempts to call a U.S. Navy warship he first has to establish contact. Calling another merchant ship is relatively easy, you find the name of the ship on your AIS and hail it on the VHF. But the US Navy often turns off its AIS transmitter to prevent enemy’s from tracking warships via internet sites like MarineTraffic.com which pick up the AIS signal via commercial satellites and publish the positions online.

The alternative way to contact a Navy ship is by calling out its hull number (painted in huge white numbers on the bow) but, for various reasons, the Navy doesn’t always respond to this number.

Provided you do establish contact with the oncoming destroyer you run into another major obstacle. The person who responds to your call is not the Captain but junior officer who then relays the message to the Officer Of The Deck or the Captain. The Captain’s response then has to go back down the chain where time and information is lost, mistakes are made and the delays occur. Hard data is, more often than not, conveyed accurately, but more nuanced information – like the sound or anger, hesitation or exhaustion in the captain’s voice – is lost.

The communication problems don’t stop there. Navy ships require that information from complex systems move quickly between officers and they carry this out with a large vocabulary of acronyms, abbreviations and units of measurement that are highly effective for communication between American naval officers but are gibberish to foreign ship captains.

For example… a foreign ship captain will order his helmsman to turn port or starboard but an American captain orders left and right turns. Merchant Captains prefer true bearings based off the compass but Navy Captains prefer relative bearings based off the centerline of his own ship. And most frustrating of all, merchant mariners use Nautical Miles to denote distance but the Navy measures everything in yards.

Small differences? Maybe but a series of small discrepancies can lead to big problems.

Was VHF contact established between the two vessels before the collision? Why was the USS Fitzgerald Captain in his stateroom and not on the bridge looking out the window? Was he tuned into the VHF radio monitoring the conversation? Was the containership captain fluent in English and, if not, did the navy radioman listen with patience and speak with simple clarity? Did they communicate externally with international accepted standards or use U.S. Navy centric jargon?

This is important because basic communication problems have been found to be a primary cause in nearly every multi-vessel incident gCaptain has reported on in the last ten years.

The Lack Of Specialists

In the not so distant past, merchant ship captains holding a “Master Unlimited” license, the highest license issued by the Coast Guard, were legally sanctioned to command any ship of any size upon oceans. The only limitation placed on that license was large sailing ships (Tall Ships). While that is still technically true today, a containership company would not hire a tanker captain and a cruise ship company would not give a large cruise ship to a containership captain. They want people having experience aboard similar types of ships.

It takes a bachelor’s degree from a Maritime Academy plus approximately 10 years and the completion of weeks worth of intense testing to earn a Master Unlimited license. There are ways around some of these requirements (like having a college degree) depending on the flag state, but all maritime nations have strict rules governing how many days of those 10 years were spent at sea. A civilian ship captain will spend at least a few hours on the bridge of the ship every day of work. That translates to a lot of experience avoiding collision.

The U.S. Navy also has specialized strict standards for enlisted sailors. If you want to operate a RADAR, for example, you must pass general examinations, be selected, attend the Navy’s challenging “A” school and commit to a five year service obligation. Then enlisted sailors have to prove their ability aboard ship under the watchful eye of non-commissioned officers.

Each individual piece of critical equipment aboard a navy ship has a highly trained and competent person(s) assigned to it. The total number of people working, on both the bridge and the Combat Information Center (CIC) to navigate the ship exceeds a dozen.

The merchant ship captain, who has to operate all equipment himself, often has to use his experience and expertise to fill in gaps of information. But the Naval officer has the opposite problem. He is often working with too much information as it comes in from all the enlisted people who work for him… and he has to use his knowledge and experience to filter out unnecessary data. The question is, how much experience does he have?

The captain of a merchant ship does not work in an office, he never gets sent to the engine room to stand a watch, and with just two dozen people aboard his ship at any one time he is free of most of the administrative and disciplinary duties that come with commanding a Navy destroyer with five times the number of sailors.

But unlike the merchant captain and the enlisted specialists working on navy ships, the U.S. Navy Captain and his bridge officer (OOD) are generalists. A large percentage of their careers are spent working shoreside jobs and their shipboard time was spent rotating through positions: the engine room, the combat information room, in administrative positions and elsewhere.

In short, the merchant ship captain and bridge officers have significantly higher number of hours spent on the bridge then their naval counterparts.

Why Was The Navy Captain In His Cabin

One myth that persists among the general public is that Captain Joseph Hazelwood, master of the Exxon Valdez, was drunk at the wheel of his ship when she grounded on Bligh Reef. The truth is far different.

Captain Hazelwood rightfully shouldered the blame for that incident because a Captain is responsible for the actions of his crew but his level of intoxication, if any (blood alcohol tests were inconclusive) was found not to be a primary cause of the incident. How could it be? He was not on the bridge of the ship when it grounded. He was in his cabin! The ship was grounded not by Hazelwood but by a junior officer he trusted to navigate the ship safely.

Ship Captains never take the wheel and drive the ship, helmsmen and autopilots do that job. Ship captains spend most of their time in the office doing paperwork or managing people all around the ship. The actual navigation of the vessel is done on the bridge by a junior officer called the Officer In Charge Of The Navigational Watch (OICNW). The US Navy operates the same way but that officer is the Officer Of The Deck (OOD).

It is this officer’s duty to navigate the ship safely according to the voyage plan laid out by the captain. This officer is in charge of communicating with and avoiding other ships. He is the one responsible for avoiding collisions and he holds this responsibility with important caveat; it is his duty to call the captain whenever there is possible risk of collision or danger of any kind.

And it is the Captain’s duty to go to the bridge whenever he is called for help.

But the captain of the USS Fitzgerald, like Captain Hazelwood, was not on the bridge. He remained in his cabin where he was injured during the collision. Did the OOD fail to call him up to the bridge for help managing the situation? Did he ignore the OOD’s call for help? Or, like the Exxon Valdez, did the bridge team not realize they were in trouble until it was too late?

Either way, a major error was made by someone aboard the USS Fitzgerald.

Available Resources

USS Fitzgerald

Let’s take a quick look at just some of the resources the USS Fitzgerald’s captain had at his disposal prior to the collision.

The USS Fitzgerald is an Arleigh Burke class destroyer with a top speed well in excess of 30 knots. Speed is helpful in preventing collision because it allows you to put more distance between you and a dangerous ship in the same amount of time. (Yes, speed can also be dangerous.)

She is powered by four gas turbine engines with over 100,000 horsepower available to turn her propellers. Gas turbines are expensive and burn lots of fuel but the Navy uses them because they can provide an immense amount of torque in a very short period of time. Torque translates to acceleration and acceleration is important if you need to get out of the way of something fast.

The Arleigh Burke class destroyer has highly advanced AN/SPY-1 three dimensional RADAR, variable pulse width surface RADAR, AIS transceivers and a hull mounted sonar array tied into an Electronic Warfare Suite capable of tracking objects of small size moving at a high speed in real time.

The USS Fitzgerald is highly maneuverable with a very tight turning radius. While the exact figures are not public information this video of an Arleigh Burke Destroyer turning 180 degrees is very impressive.

Containership ACX Crystal

The Containership ACX Crystal however… has a theoretical top speed of 25 knots but is rarely pushed that fast.

She has a single 8-cylinder diesel engine capable of pushing one propeller with 29,200 horses for 3/10ths the amount of power of the destroyer. The acceleration of a ship like this is measured in miles, not minutes like the destroyer. Diesel engines like hers are the size of a modest house and are locked into a certain speed at night. The bridge officer can cut speed immediately but at the risk of damaging equipment. Changing speed safely requires that the engineers wake up, change into work clothes and walk down to the engine room to check the equipment before moving the throttle.

She has two RADAR sets of modern design that is likely able to overlay digital charts. Said RADAR system requires a minimum of 3 minutes of pinging to properly calculate another ship’s change in course and/or speed.

She also has an AIS receiver that plots the position, course, speed, rate of turn and other useful information on the RADAR display in (close to) real time. In turn, her AIS system transmits her information to other ships including warships. She must, by law, transmit this information at all times. Her AIS unit does not, however, receive any data from Navy ships who cloak their positions.

She weighs four times as much as the destroyer. She can also stop and turn on a dime… but only if that dime is owned by giants and has a diameter measured in nautical miles.

She has 8 officers, a captain and around a dozen unlicensed sailors… versus the destroyer’s 33 officers, 38 chief petty officers and 210 enlisted sailors.

But I thought the Containership Was At Fault?

The media has been publishing reports on “crazy ivan turns” and erratic behavior all based on incomplete and one sided AIS data which can not yet be correlated with the exact time of collision. It is too early, and information too scant, to publish a list of her faults.

That said, she is at fault! Remember the COLREGS? What I failed to mention in the beginning of this article is that, while terse, the book is littered with terms like “safe speed”, “all available means” and “Nothing in these Rules shall exonerate”. These words are nebulous and have remained so for centuries for a reason… so that no captain can ever shirk his responsibility for avoiding a collision. The COLREGS are terse, specific and targeted when it comes to assigning blame but soft and imprecise when it comes to removing responsibility and blame. Thus, every modern admiralty court trial of ships colliding has found fault with both ships, even if one is securely anchored!

Under COLREGS, whenever two ships touch each other, both ships are to blame.

For this reason I am 99.9% confident the USS Fitzgerald will be found at fault… and so will the ACX Crystal.

 

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Repairing Sextants in the Age of GPS

I first arrived in New York harbor forty years ago, as a freshly minted naval architect working for Moore McCormack. In those days, the Brooklyn docks were crowded with US flag shipping companies, many with their headquarters or sales offices in Lower Manhattan. Just to the north, in the narrow streets of Tribecca and Soho were clusters of little workshops where often elderly craftsmen repaired or calibrated chronometers and sextants, and rebuilt or reconditioned everything from pumps and valves to ship’s order telegraphs to the old tube radar sets.

In New York, these shops are long gone now. I was please to recently learn of a shop in Medford, MA, where Ridge White, 73, proprietor of Robert E. White Instrument Services, is carrying on a three generation family tradition of maintaining and repairing nautical instruments, particularly sextants. From an interview with Cindy Atoji-Keene in Boston.com:

“My forefathers were ship builders on one side and nautical instrument makers on the other. My grandfather, Wilfrid O. White, studied with the revolutionary scientist Lord Kelvin in the UK, then came to Boston and established a store near the Boston waterfront in the early 1900s. He invented the spherical compass, still used by many sailors today. My father continued the business, and early on I was tinkering with marine sextants, aneroid barometers, and barographs.

“Very few places around the country do what I do. I am happy to not be in my right mind helping people who need some service. Just yesterday I received an old English barograph that had a total failure of the sensors, which is like having a car that needs a new engine. I’ll have to install aneroid cells or capsules then put it into my test chamber to make fine adjustments. The owner of this lovely instrument inherited it from his father and it will function like new when I’m done.

“There are few things that I can’t do, and I most enjoy servicing sextants; these precision instruments are a joy to work on. They rarely need a new part, but occasionally need careful adjustment. Sextant sales, while hardly brisk these days, seem to be steady. It’s part of a renewed interest in simplicity. Navigating across the ocean without electronics keeps our minds alive instead of being slaves to the wizardry of modern gadgetry.

“I also teach coastwise navigation, navigating using buoys and coastal aids as well as tides and currents. What happens if you don’t have a GPS or the batteries go low? It’s like learning multiplication tables while you have a calculator at your desk. It’s valuable to know what’s behind the digits on the screen.”

 

Thanks to Lee Gruzen for contributing to this post.

Posted on May 22, 2017 by Rick Spilman

Sextant Description

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Hyper Sub? Boat or Sub?

The most common response to the Hyper-Sub is that it looks like something from a James Bond movie. The decidedly strange hybrid craft is a high-speed long-range speedboat which can also turn into a submarine. The craft has a capacity for only five people but boasts speeds of 40 knots and has a range on the surface of 500 miles. Submerged, it can dive to 250 feet. Reportedly, the US Marines are very interested in the Hyper-Sub. No doubt, it would also make a fun toy for a mogul who dreams of pretending to be James Bond.

Courtesy of Old Salt Blog

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U.S. Navy Ships Launch Tomahawk Missiles Into Syria

The guided-missile destroyer USS Porter (DDG 78) conducts strike operations against Syria while in the Mediterranean Sea, April 7, 2017. U.S. Navy Photo
The United States fired 59 Tomahawk missiles into Syria Thursday from two U.S. Navy ships in what President Trump says in direct retaliation for the Bashar Assad regime’s April 4 chemical weapons attack on innocent civilians in Syria.

President Trump ordered the strikes on the Al-Shayrat Air Base, the base from which the chemical attack on Syria’s Idlib province was launched. The missiles were launched from U.S. Navy destroyers USS Porter and USS Ross in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

The missile strikes are the first direct attack by the U.S. against the Assad Regime since the Syrian civil war began more than six years ago.

President Trump went on national television Thursday night to announce the attack to the American people.

“Bashar al-Assad launched a horrible chemical weapons attack on innocent civilians,” Trump said in a statement to the nation. “Using a deadly nerve agent, Assad choked out the lives of helpless men, women and children. It was a slow and brutal death for so many. Even beautiful babies were cruelly murdered in this very barbaric attack. No child of God should ever suffer such horror.”

Pentagon spokesman Navy Captain Jeff Davis later issued a statement with details of the strike, which took place at about 8:40 p.m. EDT — 4:40 a.m. April 7 in Syria, he said. The DoD also released photos and video of the missile launches:

“As always,” Davis said, “the U.S. took extraordinary measures to avoid civilian casualties and to comply with the Law of Armed Conflict. Every precaution was taken to execute this strike with minimal risk to personnel at the airfield.”

Davis said that Russian forces were notified in advance of the strike using the established deconfliction line and U.S. military planners took precautions to minimize risk to Russian or Syrian personnel at the airfield.

“We are assessing the results of the strike,” Davis said. “Initial indications are that this strike has severely damaged or destroyed Syrian aircraft and support infrastructure and equipment at Shayrat Airfield, reducing the Syrian government’s ability to deliver chemical weapons. The use of chemical weapons against innocent people will not be tolerated.”

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UFO Reported in Gulf of Mexico: OSV Engineer Says He Saw Large Craft Hovering Near Rig

A crew member of an offshore supply vessel in the Gulf of Mexico claims he saw a UFO ‘fives times’ the size of his vessel and UFO trackers are now looking for more witnesses to come forward with any information possibly related to the sighting.

The UFO sighting reportedly occurred on Tuesday in the Gulf of Mexico approximately 80 miles southeast of New Orleans.

The sighting was submitted to the National UFO Reporting Center, which apparently tracks UFO sightings and data, by the chief engineer of an OSV working the Gulf of Mexico on Thursday afternoon. According to the eyewitness report:

“Close to 7:00 pm on March 21st, just before dusk, myself and 4 of the crew members aboard our vessel saw a craft that appeared to be five times our 240 ft vessel in length. My line of sight was about 1/4 mile from our vessel. There was a rig behind the craft about a 1/2 mile. i used this to help gauge size of craft. Sighting was approximately 80 miles SE of New Orleans, Louisiana.

The scene lasted about 40 seconds. The craft rose up out of the water (Gulf of Mexico) about 40 feet, no water was dripping from the craft. Within a split second the craft disappeared at a 30 degree angle into the sky. Speed appeared to faster than speed of a light turning on in a room. Within seconds it had disappeared completely.

I can say for sure that the craft was dark colored, oval in shape and made no sound whatsoever.

With as many rigs (2), there has to be more witnesses than just the four on our vessel.

The NUFORC has even highlighted the sighting as being of particular interest among the 246 reports of UFOs received in March alone. And after speaking with the witness by phone, the NUFORC said the report seems legit and has urged more witnesses to come forward.

“We spoke via telephone with this witness, and he seemed to us to be unusually sober-minded,” NUFORC wrote in a note added to the original report. “We suspect that he is a very capable, and very reliable, witness. He estimates that upwards of perhaps 50 people, who were aboard nearby vessels, may have witnessed the event, as well. We would urge those other witnesses to submit reports of what they had witnessed.”

So, did you see a UFO in the Gulf of Mexico earlier this week?

Story courtesy of G-Captain

Dramatazition

 

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Royal Caribbean Jettisons Balconies And Adopts RFID Tracking In New Celebrity Edge Class Design

by Nikki Ekstein (Bloomberg) Richard Fain, the chief executive officer of Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., is willing to bet $5 billion that he can take everything you know about cruising and flip it upside down. Or at least outside in.
On Monday, he and Lisa Lutoff-Perlo, CEO of Celebrity Cruises—one of three brands in the Royal Caribbean family—announced a new class of ship that, among other transformational design moves, brings stateroom balconies indoors. With a push of a button, the floor-to-ceiling windows of Celebrity Edge-class staterooms retract like a super-sleek garage door, leaving nothing but a simple glass railing between your living room furniture and the crystal-blue sea.

“When I started [working in the cruise industry] in the 1970s, nearly zero ships had balconies. It was all portholes,” reflected Fain on a phone call with Bloomberg. Since then, balconies have been the golden rule for hard-core cruisers.

But fast forward to December 2018, when the first of five Celebrity Edge-class vessels is scheduled to leave the shipyard, and both portholes and balconies will become a thing of the past. At least, that’s what Fain and Lutoff-Perlo are betting on.

These balconies on-demand are just one of the first-to-market design features raising the price tag of Edge-class ships to $1 billion a piece. Here’s what else to expect on these tricked-out ocean liners, which are packed with enough bells and whistles to make even the most fervent anti-cruiser consider a trip on the high seas.

“Infinite” Verandas

By redefining the balcony, Celebrity is able to expand cabins right up to the edge of the ship—almost like an infinity pool. As a result, stateroom floor plans are (on average) 23 percent larger than before, with bathrooms gaining an extra 20 percent of square footage. This is a feat of engineering much larger than meets the eye: Currently, balconies help distribute the weight of a boat, and bringing them indoors requires naval architects to redesign the vessel’s support system. Making ships bigger isn’t the answer if you’re looking for increased square footage, either, as many ships are already too large to dock in popular ports. (They solve that issue by dropping anchor off shore and ferrying guests to land in smaller boats.)

“We have been reimagining shore experiences for a long time,” explained Lutoff-Perlo, who says the glassed-in staterooms “let us transform how guests experience destinations when they’re in port or out on sea.”

Floating Villas With Private Plunge Pools

Suites have traditionally made up five percent of Celebrity’s room stock; on Edge ships, they’ll represent 12 percent of the accommodations. Included are six duplex villas that shed the traditional décor you’ll find on, say, luxury cruise line Cunard’s two-floor suites—instead, they have private plunge pools and direct access to the one of the ship’s sundecks. “They look like a beautiful hotel that just happens to float,” said Lutoff-Perlo, who added that if you opt for the penthouse suite, you’ll get a better view than the captain. “It’s set right over the bridge,” she said.

Mobile-Controlled Everything

The last big innovation in cruising dealt with RFID-enabled wristbands that let you scan in and out of the ship at port or charge drinks to your room. But wearables are a thing of the past, said Lutoff-Perlo. On the Edge ships, you’ll be able to do everything on your phone, from checking in to unlocking your stateroom door or controlling your room’s temperature and lighting.

It all happens via a proprietary Celebrity app, which also puts the concierge, ship map, and daily event schedule in each guest’s pocket. “We’ll send you notifications for the things you’ve told us you’re interested in and use it to reduce pain points across the entire experience,” said Lutoff-Perlo. “It will help us personalize your cruise as we’ve never been able to do before.”

The Bottom Line

Lutoff-Perlo and Fain both talk about the Edge class as an evolution in modern luxury, capable of drawing more affluent younger travelers and converting them into cruisers.

“When you have to sign a contract for $5 billion, your hand shakes. But now that I’ve seen the design, my hand no longer shakes,” said Fain. And Lutoff-Perlo indicated there’s more to come. “Every new feature needs to be a must-see, must-have experience—that’s true of all these additions, along with several more amazing things we’ll be revealing later on,” she teased.

Want to get a spot on the inaugural sailing? Bookings are officially open here for the first ship’s maiden voyage, departing from Fort Lauderdale, Fla., on Dec. 16, 2018, for a week-long Caribbean circuit.

©2016 Bloomberg News

 

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Wind Sails On a Tanker?

 

Illustration shows two Flettner rotor sails installed onboard a Maersk Tanker vessel. Photo: Maersk Tankers/Norsepower

A Maersk-owned tanker is set to be fitted with two Flettner rotor sails as part of a industry project seeking to test the century-old wind propulsion technology’s potential to reduce fuel consumption in modern day shipping.

The project will be the first installation of the wind-powered energy technology on a product tanker, and will provide insights into fuel savings and operational experience.

Partners in the project include Norwegian rotor sail company Norsepower Oy Ltd, in partnership with Maersk Tankers, The Energy Technologies Institute (ETI), and Shell Shipping & Maritime.

Maersk Tankers will supply a 109,647-deadweight tonne (DWT) Long Range 2 (LR2) product tanker which will be retrofitted with two 30m tall by 5m diameter Norsepower Rotor Sails. Combined, the alternative propulsion technology is expected to reduce average fuel consumption on typical global shipping routes by 7 to 10 percent.

The rotor sails will be fitted aboard the Maersk Tankers vessel during the first half of 2018, before undergoing testing and data analysis at sea until the end of 2019.

The Norsepower Rotor Sail Solution is a modernized version of the Flettner rotor – a spinning cylinder that uses the Magnus effect to harness wind power to propel a ship. Each Rotor Sail is made using intelligent lightweight composite sandwich materials. When wind conditions are favorable, the main engines can be throttled back, providing a net fuel cost and emission savings, while not impacting scheduling. Independent experts will analyze the data gathered from the project before publishing technical and operational insights, and performance studies, the companies say.

Experimentation with Flettner rotors to aid in ship propulsion dates all the way back to the 1920’s. Although the technology has not been widely adopted, modern Flettner rotors are currently in use aboard the E-Ship 1, which has four large rotor sails and is owned by wind turbine manufacturer Enercon. Also the roll-on/roll-off vessel MV Estraden operates North Sea and is equipped with two Norsepower Rotor Sails

 

Thanks

G Captain for the post!

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Getting A Little Bit Deeper

This guy is so good at what he does. Now if I could talk him into building a #ShipModel

amateur airplanes

The weekend is expiring as I type this and while I didn’t get a spectacular sit-down to show magnificent efforts like I had planned, I did make some motivating headway. These helicopters are teaching me lessons with different aspects that I am not used to building. It’s foreign, but a nice change up so far.

I started with the Blackhawk and spent very little time installing the cockpit followed by both fuselage halves getting affixed together. All very much similar to an airplane build and right in my wheel house. The seams will be next to be addressed sometime this week.


The Huey was next with basically the same routine as the Blackhawk. Cockpit, fuselage, done. I will form an assembly line with the Huey, Blackhawk, Eurocopter, and a nice stack of sand paper.

The Hind would be right there with the rest if not for a little more work…

View original post 79 more words

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Enterprise Carrier Decommissioned

The U.S. Navy has decommissioned the world’s first nuclear powered aircraft carrier, USS Enterprise (CVN 65), during a ceremony held in the ship’s hangar bay on Friday at Newport News Shipbuilding.

The ceremony not only marked the end the ship’s nearly 55-year career, it also served as the very first decommissioning of a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier.

Capt. Todd Beltz, commanding officer of the Enterprise, addressed the ship’s company, former commanding officers and distinguished visitors and spoke of where the true spirit of “The Big E” comes from.

“For all that Enterprise represents to this nation, it’s the people that bring this ship to life,” said Beltz. “So as I stand in this ship that we all care so much about, I feel it’s appropriate to underscore the contributions of the thousands of Sailors and individuals that kept this ship alive and made its reputation. We are ‘The Big E.’”

Enterprise was the eighth naval vessel to carry the name. It was built by the Newport News Shipbuilding Co. and was christened Sep. 24, 1960, by Mrs. Bertha Irene Franke, wife of former Secretary of the Navy William B. Franke. The ship was put to sea in 1961 and safely steamed more than 1 million nautical miles on nuclear power over its entire career of more than 50 years. The ship aided in the Cuban Missile Crisis and operations Enduring Freedom and New Dawn, as well as naval maritime security operations.

Key-note speaker Rear Adm. Bruce Lindsey, commander, Naval Air Force, Atlantic, used his own experiences aboard Enterprise to emphasize the unmatched adaptability and capability of not just this ship but of all nuclear-powered aircraft carriers.

“One cannot influence world events if you are not on station and stay on station; in other words: to be where it matters, when it matters,” said Lindsey. “Nuclear carriers are tough and no other country can match us in this respect.”

Though Enterprise’s history is long and filled with a number of successful deployments, Beltz offered highlights from a letter written by Adm. James Holloway III, Enterprise’s third commanding officer, which looked toward the future of the namesake in the proposed construction of the ninth Enterprise, CVN 80.

“As this ship retires,” Beltz recited, “we know the memory will live beyond her and we–the Sailors, the shipbuilders, the supporters of Enterprise–we are that link to the next Enterprise.”

The first super carrier powered by nuclear reactors, USS Enterprise is also the first to undergo an inactivation, which includes defueling the ship’s eight reactors and preparing the hull for its final dismantlement.

Thx G-Captain for the story:

121008-N-NL401-013 STRAIT OF BAB AL MANDEB (Oct. 8, 2012) The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN 65) transits the Strait of Bab Al Mendeb. Enterprise is returning from a deployment to the U.S. 5th Fleet area of responsibility, where the ship conducting maritime security operations, theater security cooperation efforts and support missions for Operation Enduring Freedom. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Daniel Meshel/Released)

121008-N-NL401-013
STRAIT OF BAB AL MANDEB (Oct. 8, 2012) The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN 65) transits the Strait of Bab Al Mendeb. Enterprise is returning from a deployment to the U.S. 5th Fleet area of responsibility, where the ship conducting maritime security operations, theater security cooperation efforts and support missions for Operation Enduring Freedom. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Daniel Meshel/Released)

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China Welcomes Onlookers as Aircraft Carrier Skirts Japan

 

 

liaoning aircraft carrier

liaoning aircraft carrier

China’s Liaoning aircraft carrier pictured during its inauguration in September 2012. Photo: Simon Yang/CC BY-SA 2.0
reuters_logo1BEIJING, Dec 29 (Reuters) – If people want to come and look at China’s first aircraft carrier, they are very welcome, the defence ministry said on Thursday, brushing off encounters with the Japanese military as the carrier passed close to Japan this week.

The Soviet-built Liaoning, accompanied by several warships, this week travelled through the passage between the Japanese islands of Miyako and Okinawa and into the Pacific for what China has described as a routine exercise.

Japan said one of its Maritime Self Defense Force ships and a P3C patrol aircraft had spotted six Chinese naval vessels including the Liaoning travelling through the passage, and they also scrambled jets after a helicopter that took off from a Chinese frigate flew near Miyako Island.

China’s Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrier Liaoning sails the water in East China Sea, in this handout photo taken December 25, 2016 by Japan Self-Defence Force and released by the Joint Staff Office of the Defense Ministry of Japan. Joint Staff Office of the Defense Ministry of Japan/HANDOUT via REUTERS

China’s Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrier Liaoning sails the water in East China Sea, in this handout photo taken December 25, 2016 by Japan Self-Defence Force and released by the Joint Staff Office of the Defense Ministry of Japan. Joint Staff Office of the Defense Ministry of Japan/HANDOUT via REUTERS
Asked about the Liaoning’s encounters with Japanese ships and aircraft, Chinese defence ministry spokesman Yang Yujun said it was natural people wanted to look at something attractive.

“There is an expression in China – the love for beauty is common to all men,” Yang told a monthly news briefing.

“Our Liaoning is both mighty and pretty. If people are interested in it, they can look at it from afar, or peep at it. As long as they don’t break relevant laws and rules, or hinder navigational safety and freedom, we don’t care,” he said.

Yang declined to give details of the Liaoning’s mission. It also skirted self-ruled Taiwan, then sailed across the South China Sea to a base in the southern Chinese province of Hainan, according to Taiwan’s defence ministry.

However, Yang was less amused about pictures of China’s still-under-construction second aircraft carrier that surfaced on the internet this week, including on Chinese websites.

“I think that foreign reporters reporting in China must respect relevant laws and regulations,” he said when asked about the pictures, apparently implying that he believed it was a foreign reporter who took them. He did not elaborate.

China last December confirmed it was building a second aircraft carrier but its launch date has not been announced. The aircraft carrier programme is a state secret.

Yang said he had nothing he could reveal about the progress of construction of the second carrier.

China could build multiple aircraft carriers over the next 15 years, the Pentagon said in a report last year.

While the Liaoning has taken part in previous exercises, including in the South China Sea, but China is years away from perfecting carrier operations similar to those the United States has practised for decades.

(c) Copyright Thomson Reuters 2016.

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